## dinsdag 29 juli 2014

### Checkmate

Checkmating

The Queen is a very powerful piece and there are several ways to checkmate with it. Here are some checkmating patterns:

The Queen must force the enemy King to the edge of the board and then the King comes to help the Queen deliver checkmate. Notice how in the first two diagrams the King is protecting the Queen from being captured. In the last two diagrams the King is guarding the escape squares.
In this diagram the Black King is in the centre of the board. White must force it to the edge.

 1.Qc4 The Queen advances to a square that is a Knight's jump away from the King. She then drives the King to the edge of the board by keeping a Knight's jump distance away. 1. ... Kf5 2.Qd4 Ke6 3.Qc5 Kf6 4.Qd5 Ke7 5.Qc6 Kf7 6.Qd6 Ke8 7.Qc7 Kf8 8.Qd7 Kg8 9.Qe7 Kh8
Beware! The Queen cannot get any closer to the King. If White moves the Queen to f7 Black's King is stalemated and the game is a draw. This is a very common trap!
 The White King now needs to come to the Queen's aid. 10.Kf2 Kg8 11.Kg3 Kh8 12.Kg4 Kg8 13.Kg5 Kh8 14.Kg6 Kg8 15.Qe8#
This is the pattern shown in the third diagram above!
Once again, you must practise this way of checkmating. A Queen against a lone King endgame is very common when a player has managed to promote a pawn so you must know how to carry it out, especially if your opponent is very stubborn and will not resign. Remember too that you must checkmate within 50 moves as it is a draw if 50 consecutive moves occur without a capture or pawn move.

You should be aiming for one of the following positions to checkmate the enemy King with a lone Rook. Notice how the King must also control some of the escape squares.

This method of checkmating is more difficult than mating with a Queen as the enemy King is able to attack the Rook in a way which is impossible with the Queen. The Rook needs to trap the King on the edge of the board and then the King is needed to secure checkmate.
Let's see this method in action starting with the position shown below.

 1. Rc7 {A waiting move which forces Black's King closer to the corner because if 1...Ke8 2.Rc8 is checkmate} 1... Kg8 2. Kf6 {The White King forces the enemy into the corner as 2...Kf8 3.Rc8#} 2... Kh8 3. Kg6 {The White King closes in.} 3...Kg8 {The only move.} 4. Rc8#
When the King is in the centre of the board, it must be driven to the side before it can be checkmated.
In the diagram below, White must force the Black King to the side of the board. She does this by cutting off some of the King's escape squares with her Rook.

 1. Rh5 {The Black King is now unable to cross the fifth rank.} 1... Ke6 2. Ke3 {The White King comes to support the Rook.} 2... Kd6 3. Kd4 Ke6 4. Rd5 {The Rook confines the Black King even more. The King is now restricted to rectangle shown in the diagram.} 4... Kf6 5.Re5 {The box is made smaller.} 5... Kf7 6. Kd5 Kf6 7. Kd6 {The Black King is forced to move closer to the edge of the board.} 7... Kf7 8. Re6 {The Rook restricts the King.} 8... Kg7 9. Ke7 Kg8 10. Rg6+ Kh7 11. Kf7 Kh8 12. Rh6#
Checkmating with a lone rook is more difficult than with a Queen or two Rooks. The stages to keep in mind are summarized below:
1. Use the Rook to restrict the opponent's King.
2. Support the Rook with the King.
3. Confine the King to a box and make the box smaller if possible.
4. If it is not possible to make the box smaller, move the King (a waiting move to force back the opponent's King.)
5. When the opponent's King is at the side of the board look for one of the checkmating patterns to win the game!
Generally, with correct play, it is possible to checkmate with a Rook and King in 15 to 20 moves. One of the dangers is that a draw may result due to the 50 move rule (see How Games are Drawn ).
Set up various positions with the White Rook and King against the Black King and practise checkmating with a friend or a chess computer until you are sure of it.

There are many checkmating patterns. It is a good idea to know them so that you can recognise them in your games and plan how to achieve them. Here are some of the patterns to watch out for: